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“Insanity’ By F. W. H. Myers via Geraldine Cummins

Following on from The Road To Immortality by Geraldine Cummins, a deceased entity claiming to be F.W.H. Myers explains what happens after we physically die. Here he talks about insanity, depression, and dementia.

I have not made any study of insanity during my thirty-five years of supernal life. The following essay has been written at the request of three discarnate acquaintances of mine, and I have merely acted as their secretary. I am not, therefore, responsible for the major portion of the material this essay contains, or indeed, for the manner in which it is arranged. Here and there the reader may attribute a few of the sentences to me; these were written out of my superficial knowledge of an obscure and difficult subject.—F.W.H.M.

In using the term “insanity,” I wish to designate the certified who are shut up in asylums throughout the country, and people at liberty in the outside world who suffer from some form of acute neurosis which prevents them from taking their place in society; for they are not really answerable for their actions at certain times.

The insane may be divided into two classes. In the first group figure individuals who, through some organic injury, are incapable of making a sure contact with the double or unifying body. This unifying mechanism conveys the commands of the soul to the brain. If disease in the physical part makes such a connection impossible, the soul is unable to control the pineal gland for instance, or certain brain-centres, satisfactorily, and the human being resembles a ship without a pilot, drifting purposelessly upon the sea of life. Yet the pilot has not been disintegrated. As a rule he is merely partially cut off from his means of expression and is unable therefore to register his experiences on the memory centres of his material body to any effective extent. The double still communicates with the solar plexus, the sacral plexus and the other nerve centres, so the material body is still fed with life and may, therefore, remain perfectly healthy, functioning naturally according to the dictates of the subconscious mind.

I have not on any previous occasion alluded to those beings who are popularly termed earthbound spirits. These are of two kinds. We find among them non-human or sub-human spirits; these have never incarnated on earth in the human form. Many of them, however, have previously belonged to the animal world and they are capable of interfering with the double or unifying body, of taking control at times and possessing the human being. A few cases of violent insanity are caused through obsession by non-human spirits. Usually these are incurable, but obsessions of this character are in a small minority.

We are, however, principally concerned with cases of madness which are due to the interference of the newly dead with the vital communications existing between the soul of the living man and his double. These travel by means of the unifying body to the material organism. I think I may say that between at least 40 or 50 per cent of the patients treated in asylums are obsessed by dwellers in the lower zones of Hades, or as I might more fitly describe it the “terrorist world.”

Human beings of brutal character, murderers, criminals, drug addicts, bullies, unscrupulous financiers who crave only for power, individuals possessed by jealousy or the desire for revenge, congregate in this sphere and are entrapped in their one absorbing passion and in the deeply rooted habits it has engendered during their earth life.

The student must clearly understand that such beings can only obsess men and women who are, in some respect, psychically defective. Self-centred or weak-willed individuals, inert or undeveloped souls, for instance, open the door to them, whereas healthy, well-balanced people cannot be approached by these dregs of humanity who have been tossed up on the shores of death and have as a rule little or no sense of their responsibility with regard to their fellow men.

They find themselves in darkness, the night of base passions and an all-absorbing egoism, and, in their distress, they crave with all the power of their natures for the earth life from which they have been severed. No real sense of a higher life, of a spiritual universe has ever been theirs, so they stray about within this intermediate world until, at last, they come upon a light and perceive a human being. This light is the aura of a living man or woman. It attracts the wandering spirit who eagerly enters within it, and is then frequently enmeshed in the strands that bind the double to the physical body. Instantly conflict arises. In some cases the discarnate being does not know that he is dead. He struggles to gain possession of the means of communication with the pineal and pituitary glands—two of the important centres through which human personality expresses itself. He may be actually attacking a woman’s mind, and, if successful, finds himself in control of her body.

Many of the ravings of the insane are inspired by the alarm of a discarnate being who discovers himself placed in such extraordinary circumstances. Only dimly may he realise the material world through the senses and memory centres of another. But naturally this travesty of existence, when he is ignorant of the fact that he is dead, rouses within him either rage, the frenzy of fear, or some other and more puerile emotion. He may be dislodged from his controlling position through the owner of the body in question being sufficiently strong to compel him to loosen hold of that part of the unifying body which governs the brain centres—but this is rarely the case. He may, however, in certain instances, be successfully treated by psychic means, in other words through intervention from the earth plane.

A member of the medical profession and a medium of considerable power and fine character, can serve humanity successfully in a very noble work if they seek, through a certain suggestive treatment, to lure the obsessor from the insane person into the medium’s double. The latter should be capable of going into deep trance and must be a healthy and well-balanced individual. The treatment is as follows:

Electricity may be applied to the patient, for this force disturbs the obsessor, causes him to struggle to escape from the confinement of the body he has usurped. If successful his attention is naturally caught by the luminous auric cloud that hangs about the medium. The latter has gone into trance, and so the discarnate being eagerly takes possession of his body and uses his vocal chords. Then the doctor converses with him and finds out in this way why he has tried to return to earth by these unnatural means. If the act has been committed in ignorance, if this stranger from the other world is not aware that he has died, then information as to this fact and careful reasoning and suggestion will lead him to understand that he has committed a serious crime and must relinquish the stolen body, giving up his prey. For the doctor will assure him that he can never succeed in living on earth in the full sense in an alien shape, and that, for him, there can only be misery so long as he continues in this present state of dissociation. He is advised to concentrate upon some higher spiritual power and upon friends or relatives who passed before him into the Hereafter. His thoughts will travel as sound travels on earth and reach to their minds whatever their level of consciousness.

I have stated that it must be realised that when a medium is in full trance the intelligence who controls him temporarily, is often to a certain degree, in a hypnotic state, and is, therefore, easily suggestible. As a rule this discarnate being follows the advice and obeys the commands of the sitter. He withdraws permanently from the patient’s double, and in a very short time, the soul of the latter assumes full control again and his mind becomes normal; no trace remaining of the insanity that appeared to cause him to be completely deranged.

Treatment through the transference temporarily of the obsessing spirit to a medium who is in deep trance, has, I understand, been practiced successfully, not merely in these modern days, but in ancient times. Nevertheless, I would not recommend its general adoption in medical practice however much its value may be recognised in the future. For only very few mediums are sufficiently well balanced in character and sufficiently strong, both mentally and physically, to sacrifice themselves thus devotedly by allowing a stranger—who very often belonged when in life to a low order of human being—to enter and temporarily control their double, and thereby, their material brain.

A medium runs considerable risk if he or she is not of a fine spiritual development, for the transferred obsessor may endeavour—if malignant—to injure the delicate apparatus he now directs. Consequently, only those who have been very carefully tested and are known to possess exceptional power should be permitted, under the watchful care of a doctor, to risk what might well be their lives in this manner.

That exceedingly rare individual, a gifted automatist, may, in certain circumstances, treat the insane with beneficial results. Provided he is intelligent and well balanced, he can render assistance in the following manner without running any real risk of injury to himself. He must retain his full consciousness when he is sitting and his control or guide endeavours to grapple with the obsessing entities. We have, however, to assume that the control in question already possesses some of the ancient occult knowledge. By means of certain symbols and phrases, he can invoke psychic powers, which will, if exercised over a certain period, benefit the patient even if he is not present when the automatist is at work.

The latter, of course, should be provided with an object which has been worn frequently by the patient. For it acts as a focus for the control, making it possible for him to find, as it were, the patient’s wavelength, and thereby make a sure connection with his subconscious mind.

I write, in this instance, of certain exceptional individuals who are not merely gifted automatists. They possess as well occult knowledge which enables them to attract a control who can make use of the cultural foundations to be found in their memory. As in the case of Socrates’ daemon, this communicating intelligence possesses a more extended vision than the medium he controls and may therefore, treat certain individuals suffering from mental derangement with a fair measure of success.

A Second Method of Treatment

During the days of Egyptian and Chaldean civilizations men were aware of another and effective method of restoring reason and normality to those who were mentally afflicted. Their knowledge was possessed only by certain seers and masters and, handed on to a few specially selected persons, was in use when the Romans were masters of Palestine and south eastern Europe.

Numerous miracles related in the New Testament were performed through this curative knowledge. When Christ cast out devils from the sick who were brought to Him, He was working as might any mental specialist in Harley Street, that is to say, making use of a treatment which had been successfully applied in other cases. But in addition to this He brought all the resources of His own personality into play as well as His Divine Power.

The exorcism of evil spirits, to which reference is made in various narratives in the Bible, must not be dismissed as mere legend and myth. Some of these cases may be as correctly reported as any that figure in the British Medical journal.

But the physician of A.D. 30, had studied and prepared himself for the healing of the sick in a very different manner from that now employed in our medical schools. At the commencement of the Christian era it was necessary for the individual possessed of medical ambition to prepare his mind and body for his future work by practicing many austerities, by retiring at one season in his life from the company of men and living in complete solitude. He had to withdraw from all contact with other human minds for a time if he was so to develop and increase the powers of his own mind that he could dominate not merely the mentality of another, but his material body as well.

We are at present primarily concerned with the disease of insanity, and it is perfectly true that in A.D. 30 it was possible for a master-physician, when he was in full consciousness, to cure the mentally afflicted instantaneously, restoring to them their reason and normal intelligence. And if such healing seems incredible to the modern sceptic it is only because he is unaware of the fact that long training and preparation of the body and mind of the physician were necessary in order that he should make an apparently miraculous cure. It was also essential during that period of training, that he should admit that there existed an invisible world populated with discarnate beings, and that he should study that world. In other words, psychical research was as important a feature of his curriculum as anatomy is of the curriculum of the medical student of our day.

In order, however, that the master should acquire power and control over the insane, he had first, through meditation and various exercises in concentration, to strengthen his own mind and also to make thereby contact with the Supreme Mind. Through a Spartan discipline, through fasting and the experimental study of the life forces he obtained a clearer perception of his own physical apparatus and of his double. In time he acquired such mastery over himself he was able to control the neuric energy, the life force which flowed into his body from his unifying shape through the nerve-centres.

We must be quite clear as to the character of his anatomical studies. The double is the etheric counterpart of the material body; they journey together from the beginning of the chapter to the end, from birth till death; the two forms are organized and controlled by the life forces; these latter being controlled and organized by the consciousness. The minds of human beings—particularly when they herd together in crowds or in great cities—impinge upon each other unconsciously. Frontiers that we believe inviolate, are crossed and human beings do not possess as much independence of thought and individuality as they imagine.

A medical student who would figure as a master in psychic realms must at some period of his studies, perhaps in his first year, retire from the world in order that he may set up barriers which will defend the frontiers of his mind against any attack no matter how insidious from without.

I will now describe one of the exercises in concentration. The student must so continuously image an object that he becomes for a time merged with that object. This practice is, of course, well known to mystics and occultists. But it would take too long to discuss in detail here. Training such as I have described, may eventually induce the higher state of mystic life; but it may also be employed in the service of medical science for the treatment of the insane.
When a great master commanded a devil to come out of a man he usually chose that man as an object with which he could merge; that is to say, his mind flowed across the frontiers, invaded, and took possession of the patient’s subconscious mind. In the meanwhile, with all his power, he focussed his own life force upon the double of the patient. It had the effect of an electrical disturbance, the obsessing spirit or devil was instantly compelled to loosen hold of its usurped quarters as if by an earthquake.

The words of command that accompanied this act completed this effective attack upon the enemy. For the latter, being usually in a suggestible condition, was the more responsive to authority from another. Thus the obsessing spirit could be forced to relinquish his hold, but in certain cases when there had been occupation over a long period, or when the devil, or devils, had established complete control, it was essential that an alternative should be offered. In the case of the Gadarene swine, you will remember, the evil spirits were commanded to enter into the herd. This seemingly wanton act was based on reason, for the Master knew well that sooner than wander in darkness the exorcised would return to the light that had originally attracted them and take possession of their former victim again. So the swine were sacrificed in order that the sanity of the men He had healed might be preserved.

“The whole herd of swine ran violently down a steep place into the sea and perished in the waters.” The controlling discarnate intelligences were overcome by a violent fear when they discovered themselves to be in association with the doubles of these beasts, and entrapped within organisms that were of so primitive a kind. Terrified by its strangeness and its brute character they sought to escape in the only possible way, and so caused the suicide of the swine. This severe experience taught them an unforgettable lesson. Once they were extricated from their extraordinary association with animal life they sought no more to haunt human beings; for they were compelled through this second death to realise their own death, of which they had no previous knowledge.

As I have stated, numbers of undeveloped souls do not realise that they have passed into another life if they are filled with a sense only of physical conditions and have little or no awareness of intellectual and spiritual processes, of that higher nature which they had not sought during their earthly existence.

The Preparation

At daybreak, or in the early morning, it was the custom of the master to seek communion with God. He chose this time because of the stillness of the world when all but a few men sleep, and so many thousands of human minds are quiescent and at rest. During the busy hours of the day their thought-emanations might hinder and interfere, might gather like a fog, and obstruct a physician of souls who follows in the footsteps of the Master. But once he has lived even momentarily on the heights with Wisdom he will maintain communication with it throughout the day.

If the need arises he should be able to draw to him that Illumination which caused Christ to exclaim “I am the Light of the World.” He expressed, then, the truth beyond all other truths known to man, that it is possible for the individual who walks the world clothed in the dense garment of the flesh to become God in the sense that the Creative Wisdom shines through him and fills his whole being. Then, for a brief while he may acquire, though but feebly, the Divine
Power that, when granted in full measure, can move mountains, heal the sick, cast out devils, and speak the Immortal Words of Life.

Nevertheless, in that great era, Christ alone might claim that He was the Light of the World. For no other man could thus enfold himself within the Holy Spirit and become like unto His Creator.

“Command the winds and they shall obey thee.” This phrase would, to rationally minded men of the present age, seem mere foolish boasting and might suggest, perhaps, that the speaker was an individual who possessed an unbalanced mind and suffered from grandiose delusions. But a master filled, for a brief time, with the Divine Creative Wisdom can alter the courses of the winds because he is, at that moment, a channel for the expression of the Formative Principle, the Imagination that has created the earth and maintains it through natural law, and may through the working of this very law actually change the currents of air, direct the wind, causing it to sweep from west to cast instead of from north to south. Perhaps no human being will ever again attain to that mastery of the self, obtain that complete control over mind that enables him thus to dominate Nature. But a few, who are the children of the Kingdom, can, through a life devoted to the study and development of their spiritual and intellectual nature, learn how to heal the sick with a touch of the hand, cure the mentally afflicted with a word of command, overcome the laws of gravitation by walking upon the waters, or actually control matter so that the miracle of the loaves and fishes can be enacted again.

The process that produces a so-called miracle may be described as the principle of mind heightened to such a fine intensity by means of concentration that it is rendered capable through the medium of a human being temporarily to dominate matter, to control it through knowledge of natural law and by communication with its Inscrutable Origin.

The medical student of the present day might with advantage enlarge his curriculum. It is not within his power to follow out the details of preparation that were essential to the training of a master in the time of Christ.

But he would do well to devote a portion of his time to the study and development of his own mind. I have on a previous page mentioned one simple exercise of concentration when the thinker seeks to merge his mind with the object for a brief while. This practice exercised only for a few minutes daily will, if the individual be gifted, grant to him definite power, a mastery over himself which may lead to his being able not merely to inspire confidence when he visits the sick, but may in time enable him to impart to them a certain vitality through his mere presence. And thus ailing human beings will benefit because the physician knows that form does not create mind, but mind creates, and therefore, may—even when focussed with a moderate intelligence but with patient deliberation—control matter and the physical body to a considerable degree.

The Variety of Earth-Bound Spirits

In writing of insanity I have so far only alluded to thoroughly evil souls, to those violent entities who were called demons in the ancient days. But numbers of ignorant, trivially minded human beings loiter at the gates of death. They have no especially vicious tendencies and may be said to be individuals who are without any perception of the psychic evolutionary processes. During their lifetime they were incapable of any real spirituality and lived only in the material sense.

Such travellers on the road to immortality have no conception of the continuous character of the journey in eternity. Craving only for sensual experiences, for the dense world of Matter, they succeed, in partially dominating the personality of another. They have a certain cunning and regularise their position in the alien body which they seek to possess. Characteristic instances of this type of victimisation may be found in some cases of multiple personality. Often this kind of dual possession works very smoothly owing to the skill of the obsessor, who has not first impulsively seized one or two of the important communication lines with the material body, but has successfully taken possession of the double of the patient and in complete consciousness, controls for a time the whole of the living organism.

To another class belong obsessions that are illustrated by one or more foolish and trivial but not violent delusions which recur at intervals. In such cases the inchoate and unformed souls, whom I have just described, are usually still in the drowsy state that sometimes prevails for a considerable period on the other side of death. They are, mentally, completely absorbed in earth conditions and in the life they have left behind. Intellectual and spiritual exertions are foreign to their nature. Their petty egoism and their indolence of mind lead them to remain in this condition, and then like will go to like. The dreaming, discarnate being drifts into some feeble human being’s sub consciousness, mingles with it and endeavours to reproduce some special act or inherent fancy that figures in the patient’s subconscious memory.

Though still expressing himself in a lucid manner, the obsessed individual is impelled, through this invasion, to illustrate again and again the particular act, the mode of thought, or complex that is thus suggested by the other soul. Soul, indeed, may dwell within soul and mind within mind.

In such cases autosuggestion and hypnotic treatment can be used with favourable results, that is, if the impinging consciousness has not been long in residence and is not strongly entrenched. At the moment the latter has no consciousness in the wakeful active sense. His state of dream indicates a lack of unity and an absence of any focus of concentration. Purpose and deliberate desire to control a physical shape do not declare themselves. So the invading cloud that belongs to the lower strata of the subconscious self may, through man’s present knowledge, be checked and gradually eliminated from the mind of the patient. Numerous people, who suffer from some foolish delusion and yet are otherwise capable of leading sane and normal lives, belong to this category and offer baffling problems to their relations and to their medical attendant. For often it may be cruel, or perhaps impossible, to segregate them, and yet, though they continue in part to lead a rational existence, treatment is urgently necessary lest the impinging dreamer becoming gradually roused, endeavours to obsess and permanently injure the mentality of the patient.

Senile Decay

When considering evidence of senile decay in very old people we have to recognise that they are living almost wholly in the world beyond death. And though their subconscious mind may not be actually invaded by an earth-dreaming soul, its detachment opens the brain to some extent to the influence of the wandering thoughts that emanate from the collective mind. A scattered and inefficient expression of a once intelligent and active personality ensues. In reality the consciousness of the old man is now residing almost wholly in the intermediate world, and only a portion of his subconscious self still maintains active communication with those nerve-centres that are not in the brain, but are primarily connected with the functioning of the organism. A very old person, therefore, who is described by the term “senile”, might more aptly be called a “departed spirit.” For he is already dead. He has crossed the Styx, and there remains but the body without the “Word” that gave it intelligent life.


Medical men will probably tell you that they find patients suffering from melancholia extremely difficult, if not impossible, to cure. This unfortunate type of mental disease and its permanent character may be more readily understood if we accept the theory of obsessing spirits, and above all the special character of certain of those obsessors who endeavour to take possession of the individuals in question.

Usually such invading souls have, after death, been seized with the violent desire to return at all costs to earth. Sometimes they are not actually vicious; they possess strong wills and often have keen intellects. But in common with those beings previously mentioned, they have a sense only of the value of earth life. The phrase, “it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of Heaven” may be used here in a special sense. Of course this remark of Christ’s has a far wider significance but it certainly expresses the fact that individuals who have enjoyed wealth and the many pleasures it provides, to the fullest extent, are heavily handicapped when they pass beyond the grave. They have lived so much for their own delight in material things, in the rich and full satisfaction of their numerous desires they have no refuge in themselves, they find, indeed, after death only a vacuum; and so, longing with all their hearts for the material joys, easily obtained by them in life, they are drawn near to the visible world. They passionately seek the way back and, without a thought, take possession of some weak human being’s body, generally in the manner I have previously described. But when discarnate beings, impelled by the driving force of strong emotion, thus firmly seize the reins of government and give orders to the residing intelligence to withdraw, they are very often permanently caught within this stranger’s double. Slowly but surely they realise their crime, a crime committed, at any rate, partly in ignorance of the true situation. They find themselves in a prison, chained to an alien organism through their selfish desires; but are too ignorant, and because of their sheltered earthly existence, too inexperienced to be capable of making the tremendous effort that will grant them release.

Such people are often quite ordinary and human in character, and so, become remorseful. For them there appears to be no possibility of restitution; they see no way whereby they can restore liberty of spirit and control of his material body to their involuntary host. So they become plunged in despair, and if they do not actually suggest suicide to the patient’s brain, they cause him to exhibit signs of acute melancholia.

Day after day, year after year, he will remain inert, with a ravaged, tormented face, while his soul is withdrawn and the stranger, a hopeless despairing prisoner, holds his place; can neither abandon his position nor make a rational coherent use of it. Possibly only a master who took the course of training that was prescribed in the time of Christ, could cure cases of pronounced melancholia, by setting the intruder free.


Hallucinations have been described by members of the medical profession as false sense impressions. They may be visual, auditory and tactile. Generally they refer to matters connected with the patient’s intimate life being roused up by obsessing entities detached from their own memory. These are using a stranger’s memory-centres with disastrous results.

In such cases the enemy, or enemies, make attacks at intervals and have as a rule no intelligent control. They are only intermittently associated with the patient or, if permanently present, they have not yet mastered the mechanism of expression. In numerous instances, the obsessor may be likened to a child who sits at a piano and strikes two alternating chords. He is unequal to the task of performing coherently on this instrument and repeats the same sounds again and again.

Examples of this kind are to be met with among mentally afflicted persons, who continue day after day, to utter the same self-reproach. He or she has committed some crime. He says he has stolen twenty thousand pounds, or he has murdered his aunt. On such occasions the invading entity is merely setting in motion some repressed desire or image in the patient’s subconscious mind. Actually the two souls, through their conflict, have paralysed intelligent action on their plane. So the one scene imaged in the mind—such for instance as a theft of twenty thousand pounds—fills the whole landscape, as it were, and reduces the individual to a state of complete mental incapacity.
If neurosis arises out of conditions that prevailed during a former life, the patient does not fall into the category of the obsessed. He is suffering from some defect in his unifying body, his symptoms will enable the physician to find out whether there is duality; whether two minds are seeking to control the one visible mechanism.


The two principal types of delusion are grandiose ideas and persecution mania. Here the selves of the two parties merge and build up a third character, a sham personality out of the basic factors of the subconscious life.
A woman announces that she is Queen Victoria and endeavours to act the part of a queen. She has, perhaps, lived always in a humble and inferior position. It is out of the materials in the submerged strata of the self that the two souls, by thus coalescing, build up a new character that has, in many respects, the characteristics of an automatum. For again, the unity of the normal intelligence is absent through the paralysis caused by two consciousnesses mingling and thus mutually inhibiting each other.

Bear in mind that, in the majority of cases, the invading spirit has to make use of the materials in the memory-centres of the individual’s mind. But upon them he may stamp some fixed idea of his own, and thereby he makes confusion worse confounded.”

May I say that the origin of mental derangement is not to be found in any disturbance of the reasoning powers, but in the materials presented to those powers. For though abnormal nervous symptoms would seem to arise from conflict, yet conflict between, for instance, the herd instinct and the primary instincts, does not, in many cases, explain the mystery of the deranged mind. The conflict has weakened the defences of the psyche and in certain instances, the patient’s subconscious mind then receives suggestive material from the intermingling of the obsessor’s subliminal self with his or her own. And the interference of this third entity leads, in time, to a condition of insanity.

It will be quite clear from the foregoing that there are many degrees of invasion of the psyche, and that they vary according to the power of the obsessing soul, according to its ability to direct the apparatus, and according to the state of its own sub consciousness. The physical and psychic character of the victims will also determine the nature and kind of insanity that ensues. The physician may then seek to apply the modern psychological treatment. He examines the patient and employs the methods psychoanalysis—a science that was developed after my day. But I think I may assert with some confidence that, when cases of obsession are cured by these means, success has come through drawing the patient’s attention directly to the haunting ideas which are described as complexes, and thereby, causing him to eject the invading entity.

Once intelligent attention is focussed on the dark place its owner can master his adversary, who after all, is very much handicapped when in association with a stranger’s subconscious memory. It is perhaps some old fear which has led the victimised human being to ignore this dark place, or desert it, and so leave it open to invading forces. In certain cases when the light of intelligence falls upon it the darkness lifts and passes, and the patient is restored to complete sanity.

But there are also instances in which the treatment of psychoanalysis fails to restore normality and balance to the ailing man. In a brief essay of this character I am unable to discuss at length any specific treatment. However, I think I may say that in quite a number of cases, the failure of psycho-analysis is due to the fact that the patient may as easily be overwhelmed by the nature of the complex as released from its influence. For the complex has a certain artificial life when stimulated by another intelligence. So I believe I am correct in saying that psychoanalysis can only succeed in those cases in which there is either no obsessing entity, or, if there be one, it has obtained no sure hold and therefore, may easily be dismissed in the manner I have described.

It has not been possible for me in this brief essay to cover the whole field of insanity and discuss even superficially the influence which the invisible world of consciousness may have over those defective individuals who are liable to be overcome by the disease of insanity during some period in their earthly career. I have not even alluded to the numerous cases in which lunacy is due to injury or to some malformation in the unifying body. Indeed, in most instances of insanity caused by obsession this unifying body in time suffers very considerably and, in incurable cases, it is, as a rule, seriously damaged or partially put out of action.

Beyond Human Personality by Geraldine Cummins.


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